Textile Wet Process / Photo Credit: Textechdip – Nicky Gold
WET PROCESS FOR TEXTILES: Textile Industry (What are Major Chemicals Used in Wet Processing Textiles?)
Letha Oelz (You can contact Letha at: OelzLetha@gmail.com… please follow me at https://www.finderzkeeperz.co.za or https://www.facebook.com/FinderzKeeperzConsulting/)
What is Wet Processing Textiles?
Wet Processing Engineering is one of the major streams in textile engineering refers to textile chemicals process engineering and applied science. … In other words, wet process is done on manufactured fabric.
Wet Processing Engineering is one of the major streams in textile engineering refers to textile chemicals process engineering and applied science. The other three streams in textile engineering are yarn engineering, fabric engineering and apparel engineering.
Wet process is usually done on the manufactured assembly of interlacing fibers, filaments, and/or yarns having substantial surface (planar) area in relation to its thickness, and adequate mechanical strength to give it a cohesive structure. In other words, wet process is done on manufactured fabric. The processes of this stream is involved or carried out in aqueous stage and thus it is called wet process which usually covers pretreatment, dyeing, printing and finishing.
All of these stages are required aqueous medium which is created by water. A massive amount of water is required in these processes per day. It is estimated that, on an average, almost 100 liter of water is used to process only 1 kg of textile goods. Water can be of various quality and attributes. Not all water can be used in the textile process, it must have some certain properties, quality, color & attributes for being used in textile processes. This is why water is a prime concern in wet process engineering.
Most water used in the textile industry is from deep well water which is found 800 ft. below the surface level. The main problem which is concerned in using water in textile processes is water hardness caused by the presence of soluble salts of metals including calcium and magnesium. Iron, aluminum and copper salts may also contribute to the hardness, but their effects are much less. Using hard water in wet process can cause problems such as the formation of scale in boilers, reactions with soap and detergents, reaction with dyes and problems due to Iron.
Water hardness can be removed by boiling process, liming process, soda lime process, base exchange process or synthetic ion exchange process. Recently some companies have started harvesting rain water for use in wet processes as it is less likely to cause the problems associated with water hardness.
Wet Process Engineering (WPE) is the most significant division in the textile preparation and processing. It is a major stream in textile engineering which is under the section of textile chemical processing engineering and applied science. Textile manufacturing covers everything from fiber to apparel; covering with yarn, fabric, fabric dyeing, printing, finishing, garments or apparel manufacturing. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and coloration processes to the production of a wide ranges of products.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. In this industry, wet processing plays a vital role in the area of pre-treatment, dyeing, printing and finishing of both fabrics and apparels. But coloration in fiber stage or yarn stage is also included in the wet processing division.
All the processes of this stream are carried out in an aqueous state or aqueous medium. The main processes of this include;
Major Chemicals Used in Wet Processing: Acids, bases, salts, surfactants, oxidizing agents and reducing agents are the major chemicals those are widely used in wet processing industry. Acid: An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a substance which reacts with a base.
Chemical analysis always involves the use of different chemicals. In order to assure accurate analysis results, the chemicals used need to be standardized, the procedures must be followed exactly and the data obtained have to be analyzed statistically. If an instrument is used, it should be maintained and calibrated properly.
In a chemical analysis, especially involving quantitative analysis, the amount of chemical used is critical and can be determined by the measurement of concentration if it is a solution, or by weight, if it is a solid. Sometimes, the concentration of a solution can be easily determined by using another known solution through titration. For acids and bases, if the concentration is sufficiently low, the pH concept is generally used to represent the concentration of the acid or base in the aqueous solution. For the analysis of common chemicals, such as caustic soda, acetic acid, soda ash, sodium dithionite, hydrogen peroxide, and so on, titrimetric analysis and gravimetric analysis are widely used. For the analysis of surfactants and other chemicals, qualitative spot tests and specialized instruments should be utilized.
Before the analysis of chemicals in textile wet processing we should to know about concentration, titration, weighing, pH etc. Now a short identity of these are given below.
The concentration of a solute is usually expressed as the amount of a solute in a unit volume of a solution. The amount of a solute can be in grams (g), kilograms (kg), moles (mol), or normal (n). The unit volume of a solution is always in liters (l).
Titration is a method by which the concentration of an unknown solution can be determined using a standardized solution with a known concentration through a stoichiometric reaction. The end point of the chemical reaction is indicated by the color change of an indicator or an instrumental reading. The standard solution of a known reagent is the titrant and the unknown solution is the titrand.
Weighing is an important operation in gravimetric analysis. Usually it involves the use of an electronic balance with a minimum readability of 0.1 mg. In order to ensure reproducible results, sample handling is very critical especially when hygroscopic materials are weighed.
pH is a scale between 0 and 14 used to express the concentration of hydronium (H3O+, or H+) ions in a solution. It is defined by Equation.
pH = – log [H+]
Major Chemicals Used in Wet Processing:
Acids, bases, salts, surfactants, oxidising agents and reducing agents are the major chemicals those are widely used in wet processing industry.
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Sources, References & Credit: Google, Wikipedia, Wikihow, World Book Encyclopedia, Pinterest, Linked In, BBC, Wikimedia, The Free Dictionary By Farlex, Wikisource, New York Fashion Center Fabric, How Things are Made, The Guardian, The Textile Magazine, Sew Guide, Textile School, Garments Merchandising, Pexel, Fabric Farms, Real Men Real Style, Simple, Fabric, My Learning, Mood Fabrics, Fabrics International, Independent, Gentleman’s Gazette, Primer Magazine, Textiles, Sew Guide, Craftsy, Julia Garza, Superior Threads, TED, Sara J. Kadolph, ‘Textiles’, Quora, Site Point, Encyclopedia Britannica, How It Works: Science and Technology. Industry News, Esco, Fibre2Fashion, Textile Learner, Dictionary of Fiber & Textile Technology, Muhammad Ismail bin Abdul Kadir, Textechdip,
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Textile Wet Process / Photo Credit: Textechdip – Nicky Gold